ISF Therapy

Mark Lewellyn Smith, LCSW, BCN, QEEG-D.  Creator of ISF Neurofeedback

What is Infraslow Fluctuation (ISF) Neurofeedback?

Infraslow Fluctuation or ISF neurofeedback is a unique brain training method that targets the infraslow frequencies (meaning below 0.1 Hertz) occurring throughout the brain.  Training the “Ultradian” rhythms: the lowest energy the brain produces is the root of ISF.  This type of neurofeedback has had a profound, positive impact on the lives of ISF clients in USA, Germany, Canada, New Zealand, Spain, Singapore & Malaysia just to name a few countries.  Neurofeedback Singapore have treated many clients with ISF:  Autism, Dementia, Academic Peak, ADHD, Insomnia, Depression, Brain Fog, Stroke and more.  

Clinical research shows that these slow oscillations determine the overall excitability of the cortex. In addition, these slow frequencies coordinate processes in the body with processes in the central nervous system. From a neurofeedback perspective, this means that they offer a highly valuable target for reinforcement. In fact, shifts (or fluctuations) in these infraslow frequencies directly affect the brain’s internal regulation of the autonomic nervous system, including our fight-flight-freeze stress response as well as our rest-and-digest state. By providing real-time auditory feedback regarding small shifts in infraslow frequencies, the brain learns to optimize its ability to self-regulate, readjusting baseline levels of activity in various regions. Given that the root cause for dysregulated brain states and mental illness is often hyper- or hypo-excitability, ISF neurofeedback offers an unparalleled form of neurotherapy for many suffering from anxiety, trauma, depression, and much more.

Dirk De Ridder, MD, PhD

Dirk De Ridder, MD, PhD, is professor of Neurosurgery at the Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago in New Zealand. His main interest is the understanding and treatment of phantom perceptions (sound, pain), especially by use of functional imaging navigated non-invasive (TMS, tDCS, tACS, tRNS, LORETA neurofeedback) and invasive (implants) neuromodulation techniques.

Mark was also an early adopter of sLORETA neurofeedback training. 

Dirk & Mark’s experience & years of research memorialized in publications, led to the development of a 19- channel ISF intervention.  This research collaboration includes Otago University, Dirk De Ridder & Mark Smith.

1500 worldwide have been trained in ISF Neurofeedback.  Neurofeedback Singapore is the only licensed ISF neurofeedback provider in Singapore since 2011.  

This is an effective therapy.  However, like all therapies it takes time.  Shifting electrodes with referrence to your qeeg results requires time.  As such, If you cannot commit to 20 – 40 therapy sessions as recommended,  please do not begin.    

Please  call us to discuss how we can blend Infraslow Fluctuation Neurofeedback with photobiomodulation to improve lives.

  • Adhia, D. B., Mani, R., Mathew, J., O’Leary, F., Smith, M., Vanneste, S., & De Ridder, D. (2023). Exploring electroencephalographic infraslow neurofeedback treatment for chronic low back pain: a double-blinded safety and feasibility randomized placebo-controlled trial. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 1177. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-28344-2
  • Adhia, D. B., Mani, R., Turner, P. R., Vanneste, S., & De Ridder, D. (2022). Infraslow Neurofeedback Training Alters Effective Connectivity in Individuals with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Secondary Analysis of a Pilot Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study. Brain Sciences, 12(11), 1514. Retrieved from
  • Balt, K., Du Toit, P., Smith, M. L., & van Rensburg, C. (2020). The effect of infraslow frequency neurofeedback on autonomic nervous system function in adults with anxiety and related diseases. NeuroRegulation, 7(2), 64-74. doi:DOI:
  • Bekker, M., Balt, K., Bipath, P., Jordaan, J., & du Toit, P. (2021). The effect of infra-slow fluctuation neurofeedback training on a cohort of insomnia participants. NeuroRegulation, 8, 137-148. doi:doi:10.15540/nr.8.3.137
  • De Ridder, D., Vanneste, S., Smith, M., & Adhia, D. (2022). Pain and the Triple Network Model. Frontiers in Neurology, 13. doi:10.3389/fneur.2022.757241
  • Leong, S. L., Vanneste, S., Lim, J., Smith, M., Manning, P., & De Ridder, D. (2018). A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel trial of closed-loop infraslow brain training in food addiction. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 11659. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-30181-7
  • Mathew, J., Adhia, D. B., Smith, M. L., De Ridder, D., & Mani, R. (2022). Source localized infraslow neurofeedback training in people with chronic painful knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled feasibility clinical trial. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16. doi:10.3389/fnins.2022.899772
  • Perez, T. M., Glue, P., Adhia, D. B., Navid, M. S., Zeng, J., Dillingham, P., . . . De Ridder, D. (2022). Infraslow closed-loop brain training for anxiety and depression (ISAD): a protocol for a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot trial in adult females with internalizing disorders. Trials, 23(1), 949. doi:10.1186/s13063-022-06863-z
  • Smith, M. L., Collura, T. F., Ferrara, J., & de Vries, J. (2014). Infra-slow fluctuation training in clinical practice: A technical history. NeuroRegulation, 1(2), 187-207. doi:doi:10.15540/nr.1.2.187
  • Smith, M. L., Leiderman, L., & de Vries, J. (2017). Infra-slow fluctuation (ISF) for autism spectrum disorders. In T. F. Collura & J. A. Frederick (Eds.), Handbook of clinical QEEG and neurotherapy. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.


We offer 2 types of ISF Neurofeedback:

  • Bipolar (ISF1) Neurofeedback is a two-channel <1hz brain training ($1200)
  • 19-channel, sLORETA (ISF2) intervention requires a Discovery or Freedom amplifier and the use of a EEG cap.   ($1800)

Traditional Neurofeedback: Traditional neurofeedback is simpler, straightforward and effective form of treatment. It utilizes raw data of an EEG detected by placing 2-4 sensors according to international 10/20 system onto the scalp.

More Services

  1. Neurofeedback requires 20 – 40 sessions to show a difference
  2. All prices above includes:  5 sessions x 40min per visit
  3. All fees are paid at the beginning of 1st visit
  4. Do not begin if you cannot complete 20 or 40 sessions.  Neurofeedback is an effective non invasive therapy.  It is not a miracle therapy.
  5. This is why there cannot be a trial session
  6. Cancellation of appointments less than< 12 hrs before session time (penalty) will be charged at 50% for that session (onsite clients)
  7. Punctuality is important so that other clients will not be delayed (Therapy Centre clients).
  8. Have a good meal, Do your 1s and 2s, keep your scalp from excessive oil, eg. coconut oil.
  9. Please begin with a qeeg

ISF Neurofeedback yearly updates for clinicians and therapists who are Psychologists, Medical Doctors, Social workers,  Psychotherapists  …

(Above: Tom Collura ISNR 2018 – Founder Brain Master)

Raymond McGarty primary area of expertise has been addictive disorders and trauma. He has run many treatment programs throughout the United States, including serving as the Clinical Administrator of the Betty Ford Center. He has presented training workshops, and been on the faculty of a number of addiction institutes, as well as the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR). 

Great teacher Great Guy





ISF sLoreta Neurofeedback


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